Tatiana Stankovic

University of Oslo, Department of Political Science

Tatiana Stankovic

Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration (DDR) of Combatants: On the Security-Promoting Conditions in the Aftermath of Conflict

The study focuses on disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (DDR) component of peace operations. A DDR programme entails a cluster of activities (from the collection of weapons and the formal discharge of combatants to training and job-and income generating projects) designed to deal with post-conflict security threats posed by ex-combatants and ultimately to prevent the recurrence of conflicts. More than 60 DDR interventions have been implemented worldwide and they continue to attract resources. However, it remains unclear whether they have been effective.

This study will examine the conditions under which DDR programmes are effective. In line with Humphreys and Weinstein (2007), it is assumed that an effective DDR programme implies that ex-combatants (i) reject their affiliation with armed groups, the capacity, control and command of which are broken down; (ii) reintegrate into community and economy; (iii) do not oppose new political and social order. In addition, the study will address the questions concerning the purpose of DDR (a short-term security, or a long- term development goals); programmes’ target beneficiaries (ex-combatants or communities); the nature of assistance (cash or in-kind); the differentiation of incentives according to the rank of a combatant; sequencing (should disarmament and demobilization precede reintegration).

The study will consist of three parts. First, by using rational choice theory and formal modelling I aim to develop a theoretical framework that will contribute to policy discussions on how to best design and implement DDR. The goal is to advance a set of hypotheses on the determinants of successful DDR. Second, I intend to conduct a quantitative case study on the effects of DDR, if data makes such study feasible. The goal is to examine the determinants of effective DDR by examining the relationship between the outputs of DDR programmes (such as the number of weapons collected, soldiers demobilized, reintegration participants) with the expected outcomes of an effective DDR. Third, I will conduct one or two qualitative case studies in order to examine empirically the theoretically identified mechanisms and statistically generated patterns. The methodological triangulation would make it possible to examine more aspects of the research problem.